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brain scans reveal how your dog really feels

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by Stephen Luntz
November 25, 2014

Humans love our dogs, but do dogs love us back? Or is their apparent enthusiasm just an evolved form of acting? Two teams have used MRI machines to provide answers.

We cannot, of course, know what dogs are thinking. But we can see the parts of the brains they are using in different situations, and this can be very revealing.

When humans are studied in this way researcher show them photos or videos to see what response it will elicit. But Gregory Berns of Emory University, Atlanta points out that “Olfaction is believed to be dogs’ most powerful and perhaps important sense.” Consequently he allowed twelve dogs from ten breeds to smell scents from strangers and people they knew and from other dogs while lying in an MRI machine.

The study, published in March in Behavioral Processes, used only dogs that could be persuaded to lie still in the machine, so the sample may be a little skewed. Nevertheless, these good dogs responded more intensively to the smell of familiar humans than anything else, with scans showing the region of the brain known as the caudate nucleus was more active for this smell than even familiar dogs.

The caudate has multiple functions but in humans one is to react to visual beauty. It is known to be intensely active in the early stages of romantic love.

In irrelevant -- but too cute to leave out -- detail from the study, Berns and his co-authors reported the dogs “were all highly proficient at remaining in the chin rest [and] wearing ear muffs.”

In the same month, Attila Andics of Eotvos Lorand University in Budapest reported in Current Biology that dogs' brains respond to the emotional tone in our voices very much as humans do. “This is the first comparative neuroimaging study of a nonprimate species and humans,” Andics and his colleagues write. “Functional analogies were found between dog and human nonprimary auditory cortex.”

"It's very interesting to understand the tool kit that helps such successful vocal communication between two species," Andics told Brain.mic.

Andics says the MRI work confirms what those who live with canines have noticed for generations. Dogs behave like babies when scared, running to humans they have formed a bond with, unlike animals like horses which are more likely to flee than seek support.

An even more startling observation of the extent to which dogs have bonded with humans is their tendency to look people in the eyes. Andic was part of a study that attempted to train wolves to do the same thing. Even when the wolves were raised by humans from pups they would not initiate eye contact with those that cared for them. Andics claims the only other animals inclined to make eye contact with humans are our primate relatives.

"Bonding with owners is much more important for dogs than other pets," Andics said.

So far the brain scans have not been extended to cats. Possibly because everyone is afraid of what the results may reveal.
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jyl

Thanks, jlhdavis, for the excellent article and the puzzle of border collies, golden retrievers and the occasional yellow Lab.
Surreal_Heidi, I'm right with you on your take on cats. I love them to bits, but even getting them to stay still for an ordinary x-ray can be a huge chore. They have, however, been successful in many cases in their efforts to train us (the sneaky little things).

Surreal_Heidi

Yeah.... try to persuade a cat to lie still in an MRI. Voluntarily. I can see many cases of cat scratch fever resulting, and not one successful scan done. Cats don't want us to see that they are actually wild animals who have been working for thousands of years to domesticate us to feed and house them!

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